It has three branches of government. Much of Canada's topography consists of gently rolling hills with rock outcrops because the Canadian Shield, an ancient region with some of the world's oldest known rocks, covers almost half of the country. The Geography of Canada. [55], The southernmost part of Alberta drains into the Gulf of Mexico through the Milk River and its tributaries. Large diamond concentrations have been recently developed in the Arctic, making Canada one of the world's largest producers. The pillow lavas in rocks over 2 billion years old in the Canadian Shield signify that great oceanic volcanoes existed during the early stages of the formation of the Earth's crust. Unmatched cod stocks on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland launched this industry in the 16th century. [62], The Canadian pole of inaccessibility is allegedly near Jackfish River, Alberta (59°2′N 112°49′W). The physical geography of Canada is widely varied. [18] Parts of Western Canada have a semi-arid climate, and parts of Vancouver Island can even be classified as a warm-summer Mediterranean climate. Covering most of the northern part of the North American continent and with an area larger than that of the United States, Canada has an extremely varied topography. The eastern portion of the country is the most industrialized but Vancouver, British Columbia, a major seaport, and Calgary, Alberta, are some western cities that are highly industrialized as well. Its magnetic anomalies are very similar to the Sudbury Basin, and so it could be a second metal-rich impact crater. As the world’s second largest country, Canada’s geography changes significantly depending on which part you are in. The Mackenzie is over 4,200 km (2,600 mi) in length while the St. Lawrence is over 3,000 km (1,900 mi) in length. [62], The lowest point is sea level at 0 m,[64] whilst the highest point is Mount Logan, Yukon, at 5,959 m / 19,550 ft 60°34′01″N 140°24′18″W / 60.567°N 140.405°W / 60.567; -140.405 (Mount Logan, Yukon). The Northern Cordilleran Volcanic Province was formed by faulting, cracking, rifting, and the interaction between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate. The southern portions of the Shield are covered with boreal forests while the northern parts are tundra because it is too far north for trees. Notable mountains in the Appalachians include Mount Jacques-Cartier (Quebec, 1,268 m or 4,160 ft), Mount Carleton (New Brunswick, 817 m or 2,680 ft), The Cabox (Newfoundland, 814 m or 2,671 ft). In the years after the Treaty of Paris, English colonists flocked to Canada from England and the United States. This leaves the vast majority of Canada's territory as sparsely populated wilderness; Canada's population density is 3.5 people/km2 (9.1/mi2), among the lowest in the world. Canada is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy and federation. [8], Since the end of the last glacial period, Canada has consisted of eight distinct forest regions, including extensive boreal forest on the Canadian Shield;[9] 42 percent of the land acreage of Canada is covered by forests (approximately 8 percent of the world's forested land), made up mostly of spruce, poplar and pine. The third branch is made up of the Supreme Court. The leader of Canada is called the Prime Minister. Canada is part of North America. Major elements are the Yukon, Columbia and Fraser rivers. On the south coast of British Columbia, Vancouver Island is separated from the mainland by the continuous Juan de Fuca, Georgia, and Johnstone Straits. The Canadian Cordillera, contiguous with the American cordillera, is bounded by the Rocky Mountains to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. In 1869, Canada continued to grow when it bought land from the Hudson’s Bay Company. There are pillow lavas in the Northwest Territories that are about 2.6 billion years old and are preserved in the Cameron River Volcanic Belt. Canada is the second largest country in the world with only Russia being larger. [63][62], The easternmost point is Cape Spear, Newfoundland (47°31′N 52°37′W) 47°31′23″N 52°37′08″W / 47.523°N 52.619°W / 47.523; -52.619 (Cape Spear, Newfoundland). The great plains consist of a large, flat, and treeless area of land. [16] Extreme northern Canada can have snow for most of the year with a Polar climate. Canada shares a 5,525-mile- (8,890-km-) long border with the United States (including Alaska)—the longest border in the world not patrolled by military forces—and the overwhelming majority of its population lives within 185 miles (300 km) of the international boundary. [56], Canada shares with the U.S. the world's longest binational border at 8,893 kilometres (5,526 mi); 2,477 kilometres (1,539 mi) are with Alaska. To the west of their headwaters, across the Rocky Mountain Trench, is a second belt of mountains, the Columbia Mountains, comprising the Selkirk, Purcell, Monashee and Cariboo Mountains sub-ranges. Winters, however, are normally long and harsh in most of the country. Canada is located in the Northern and Western Hemispheres of the globe 4. Total Size: 9,984,670 square km. Geography Now! Canada's climate varies with location but the country is classified as being temperate in the south and arctic in the north. In Quebec the official language at the provincial level is French and there have been several Francophone initiatives to ensure that the language remains prominent there. [1] Greenland is to the northeast and to the southeast Canada shares a maritime boundary with France's overseas collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, the last vestige of New France. For historical political boundaries of Canada, see, History of the petroleum industry in Canada, List of highest points of Canadian provinces and territories, "Scientists shocked by Arctic permafrost thawing 70 years sooner than predicted", "Canada Facts: 25 Interesting and Fun Facts – not only for Kids", "The Atlas of Canada – Physical Components of Watersheds", "The High Subarctic Forest-Tundra of Northwestern Canada: Position, Width, and Vegetation Gradients in Relation to Climate", "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated", "Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification", "Weather Data: Canada, Saskatchewan, Midale, 1937, July", "Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010 Station Data", "Ottawa Macdonald Cartier International Airport", "Quebec/Jean Lesage International Airport", "Saskatoon Diefenbaker International Airport", "Winnipeg Richardson International Airport", "Canada's Worst Natural Disasters of All Time", "Population, urban and rural, by province and territory (Canada)", "Satellite imagery moves Hans Island boundary: report", "3-D Magnetic Imaging using Conjugate Gradients: Temagami anomaly", "The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada", "Canada warming up twice as fast as rest of the world, and it's 'irreversible': report", The Barren Lands Collection and Expedition maps, University of Toronto, The Barren Lands Collection, University of Toronto, World Wars and Interwar Years (1914–1945), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Geography_of_Canada&oldid=991880123, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 08:02. Across the Canadian Shield and in the north there are large iron, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, and uranium reserves. Ancient volcanoes play an important role in estimating Canada's mineral potential. That war ended in 1763 and England was given full control of Canada with the Treaty of Paris. Canada has 7,200 square kilometres (2,800 mi2) of irrigated land (1993 estimate). The border of Canada with the US is the longest bi-national land border in the world. The Canadian shield is also called the mineral house. [58] The Shield is also covered by vast boreal forests that support an important logging industry. GEOGRAPHY Canada is a vast and rugged land. The southern parts of Quebec and Ontario, in the section of the Great Lakes (bordered entirely by Ontario on the Canadian side) and St. Lawrence basin (often called St. Lawrence Lowlands), is another particularly rich sedimentary plain. Identifying and exploring Canada's six regions - Atlantic Canada, Quebec, Ontario, Western Canada, British Columbia, and the Territorial North - author Robert Bone guides students through the basic physical, historical, cultural, social, and economic features of each region, nurturing an appreciation of this country's amazing diversity. It covers Manitoba, northern Ontario and Quebec, most of Saskatchewan, southern Alberta, southwestern Nunavut and the southern half of Baffin Island. The Churchill River and Saint John River are other important elements of the Atlantic watershed in Canada. 12:58. [54], The Atlantic watershed drains the entirety of the Atlantic provinces (parts of the Quebec-Labrador border are fixed at the Atlantic Ocean-Arctic Ocean continental divide), most of inhabited Quebec and large parts of southern Ontario. Canada is bounded by the Arctic Ocean to the north, Greenland (a self-governing part of the Danish kingdom) to the northeast, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, 12 states of the United States to the south, and the Pacific Ocean and the U.S. state of Alaska to the west; in addition, tiny Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (an archipelagic territory of France) lies off Newfoundland. Cattle and sheep are raised in the valleys and plateaus of British Columbia. From north to south it spans more than half the Northern Hemisphere. The volcanic eruption of the Tseax Cone in 1775 was among Canada's worst natural disasters, killing an estimated 2,000 Nisga'a people and destroying their village in the Nass River valley of northern British Columbia. [50] The eruption produced a 22.5-kilometre (14.0 mi) lava flow, and, according to Nisga'a legend, blocked the flow of the Nass River.[51]. Get Free Access See Review. The Seven Year’s War, in which England sought to gain more control of the country, then began in 1756. The largest, and best known, is Sudbury, Ontario. This app is about an interactive map about Canadian geography. Today these stocks are nearly depleted, and their conservation has become a preoccupation of the Atlantic Provinces. Forest products contribute to one fifth of the nation's exports. Canada Geography quiz geography quiz - just click on the map to answer the questions about the provinces and territories in Canada [61], The northernmost point of land within the boundaries of Canada is Cape Columbia, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut 83°06′40″N 69°58′19″W / 83.111°N 69.972°W / 83.111; -69.972 (Cape Columbia, Nunavut). The country then grew again in 1901 when Alberta and Saskatchewan joined Canada. Many of Canada's major ore deposits are associated with Precambrian volcanoes. Major elements of this watershed include Lake Winnipeg, Nelson River, the North Saskatchewan and South Saskatchewan Rivers, Assiniboine River, and Nettilling Lake on Baffin Island. The United States is the only country that borders Canada. Fifty-four percent of Canada's land area is covered in forest. Canada For Students 8th - Higher Ed Standards. The boreal forests account for four-fifths of Canada's forestland. The Chilcotin Group is believed to have formed as a result of back-arc extension behind the Cascadia subduction zone. The climate varies from temperate on the west coast of British Columbia[15] to a subarctic climate in the north. United States & Canada Physical Geography The great plains are located to the west of the Interior Plains. By total area … Canada stretches from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west; to the north lies the Arctic Ocean. Canada has produced a Biodiversity Action Plan in response to the 1992 international accord; the plan addresses conservation of endangered species and certain habitats. Between the plateau and the coast is the province's largest mountain range, the Coast Mountains. Start studying Chapter 7: Human Geography of Canada. Canada covers 9,984,670 km2 (3,855,100 sq mi) and a panoply of various geoclimatic regions, of which there are 8 main regions. However, the term geographical history was used in 1749 in a British pamphlet describing NS, although the first major historical geographical study of Canada was by J.D. Cattle, sheep and hogs are raised on the prairies, cattle and hogs in Western Ontario, sheep and hogs in Quebec, and sheep in the Maritimes. These hills are known for a great richness in precious minerals. In Canada’s far north lies the frozen Arctic. Canada is the world's second-largest country by area but its population, at slightly less than that of the state of California, is small by comparison. Canada is the largest country in North America. [42] It also runs through parts of southern Quebec.[42]. Global climate change and the warming of the polar region will likely cause significant changes to the environment, including loss of the polar bear,[60] the exploration for resource then the extraction of these resources and an alternative transport route to the Panama Canal through the Northwest Passage. The region is known for its extensive mineral reserves.[49]. There are over 200 young volcanic centres that stretch northward from the Cascade Range to Yukon. In addition, agriculture and ranching play a significant role in the Prairie Provinces (Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba) and several parts of the rest of the country. Even with its small population, Canada plays a large role in the world's economy and is one of the largest trading partners of the United States. The ground in the Arctic is mostly composed of permafrost, making construction difficult and often hazardous, and agriculture virtually impossible. The Wrangell Volcanic Field formed as a result of subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the North American Plate at the easternmost end of the Aleutian Trench. Within the field of human geography there are five main areas of study. [5] Canada has the longest coastline in the world, with a total length of 243,042 kilometres (151,019 mi);[6] additionally, its border with the United States is the world's longest land border, stretching 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi). If you're a geography buff, this quiz is for you! [45] Most of this forest has been cut down through agriculture and logging operations, but the remaining forests are for the most part heavily protected. Canada's mineral resources are diverse and extensive. [62] The northernmost point of the Canadian mainland is Zenith Point on Boothia Peninsula, Nunavut 72°00′07″N 94°39′18″W / 72.002°N 94.655°W / 72.002; -94.655 (Zenith Point, Nunavut). The Arctic Lowlands and Hudson Bay lowlands comprise a substantial part of the geographic region often designated as the Canadian Shield (in contrast to the sole geologic area). Canada has a diverse climate. British Columbia has a long history that still shows throughout much of … A province by province tour from east to west of the best tourism and natural attractions of Canada. The furthest straight-line distance that can be travelled to Canadian points of land is between the southwest tip of Kluane National Park and Reserve (next to Mount Saint Elias) and Cripple Cove, Newfoundland (near Cape Race) at a distance of 3,005.60 nautical miles (5,566.37 km; 3,458.78 mi). British Columbia is the province located the farthest west in Canada and is bounded by the Alaska Panhandle, the Yukon and Northwest Territories, Alberta and the U.S. states of Montana, Idaho and Washington. Canada holds vast reserves of water: its rivers discharge nearly 7% of the world's renewable water supply,[52] it contains a quarter of the world's wetlands, and it has the third largest amount of glaciers (after Antarctica and Greenland). Because of extensive glaciation, Canada hosts more than two million lakes: of those that are entirely within Canada, more than 31,000 are between 3 and 100 square kilometres (1.2 and 38.6 sq mi) in area, while 563 are larger than 100 km2 (38.6 sq mi). It joined Canada in 1870 followed by British Columbia in 1871 and Prince Edward Island in 1873. It contains over 150 volcanic belts (now deformed and eroded down to nearly flat plains) that range from 600 million to 2.8 billion years old. The first Europeans to reach the country were likely the Vikings and it is believed that Norse explorer Leif Eriksson led them to the coast of Labrador or Nova Scotia in 1000 CE. The Peace, Athabasca and Liard Rivers, as well as Great Bear Lake and Great Slave Lake (respectively the largest and second largest lakes wholly enclosed by Canada) are significant elements of the Arctic watershed. Because of the long history of conflict between the English and French in Canada, a division between the two still exists in the country’s languages today. Boreal forests cover much of the country, with ice taking over the northerly Arctic regions and through the Rocky Mountains, and the flat Canadian Prairies of agriculture occupying the southwest. George Hunter. Much of Canada's topography consists of gently rolling hills with rock outcrops because the Canadian Shield, an ancient region with some of the world's oldest known rocks, covers almost half of the country. [53], Canada's two longest rivers are the Mackenzie, which empties into the Arctic Ocean and drains a large part of northwestern Canada, and the St. Lawrence, which drains the Great Lakes and empties into the Gulf of St. Lawrence. They are grouped into five volcanic belts with different volcano types and tectonic settings. West of them is the large Yukon Plateau and, west of that, the Yukon Ranges and Saint Elias Mountains, which include Canada's and British Columbia's highest summits, Mount Saint Elias in Kluane National Park and Mount Fairweather in the Tatshenshini-Alsek region. The shield also encloses an area of wetlands, the Hudson Bay lowlands. [55], The Hudson Bay watershed drains over a third of Canada. Canada is a large country. What is the mountain range called between British Columbia and Alberta? The Canadian Prairies are part of a vast sedimentary plain covering much of Alberta, southern Saskatchewan, and southwestern Manitoba, as well as much of the region between the Rocky Mountains and the Great Slave and Great Bear lakes in Northwest Territories. The main biomes of Canada are: Canada is divided into ten provinces and three territories. This watershed irrigates the agriculturally important areas of inner British Columbia (such as the Okanagan and Kootenay valleys), and is used to produce hydroelectricity. [17] Landlocked areas tend to have a warm summer continental climate zone[18] with the exception of Southwestern Ontario which has a hot summer humid continental climate. The Columbia and the Fraser Rivers have their headwaters in the Canadian Rockies and are the second and third largest rivers respectively to drain to the west coast of North America. Many of the volcanic belts bear ore deposits that are related to the volcanism. The plains generally describes the expanses of (largely flat) arable agricultural land which sustain extensive grain farming operations in the southern part of the provinces. The Appalachian mountain range extends from Alabama through the Gaspé Peninsula and the Atlantic Provinces, creating rolling hills indented by river valleys. [59] Metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impact agricultural and forest productivity. The French began to settle there in 1541 but an official settlement was not established until 1604. Nearly 90% of Canadians live within 99 miles of the U.S. border (because of harsh weather and the expense of building on permafrost in the north). Alberta also produces 75% of Canada’s oil and is important for coal and natural gas. While the largest part of the Canadian Arctic is composed of seemingly endless permafrost and tundra north of the tree line, it encompasses geological regions of varying types: the Arctic Cordillera (with the British Empire Range and the United States Range on Ellesmere Island) contains the northernmost mountain system in the world. [11][12] There are also freshwater glaciers in the Canadian Rockies, the Coast Mountains and the Arctic Cordillera.[13]. Canada has a varied landscape, with majestic mountains, rolling plains, forested valleys, and beautiful blue rivers and lakes. Canada occupies the top half of the North American continent, where it borders the United States — Canada’s only neighboring nation — to its south (and north-east, via the isolated state of Alaska ). Canada is home to the world's northernmost settlement, Canadian Forces Station Alert, on the northern tip of Ellesmere Island—latitude 82.5°N—which lies 817 kilometres (508 mi) from the North Pole. Other than in the plateau regions of the Interior and its many river valleys, most of British Columbia is coniferous forest. [14] Average winter and summer high temperatures across Canada range from Arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Canada has over 2 million lakes covering 7% of the land mass. Canada's largest cities are Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa, and Calgary. Canada is geologically active, having many earthquakes and potentially active volcanoes, notably the Mount Meager massif, Mount Garibaldi, the Mount Cayley massif, and the Mount Edziza volcanic complex. The less depleted (but still greatly diminished) salmon population continues to drive a strong fisheries industry. +1 (514) 937-9445 or Toll-free (Canada & US) +1 (888) 947-9445 | Home About Forum News Client Portal Contact The St. Lawrence plain, covering most of southern Quebec and Ontario, and the interior continental plain, covering southern Manitoba and Saskatchewan and most of Alberta, are the principal cultivable areas. The Garibaldi Volcanic Belt was formed by subduction of the Juan de Fuca Plate beneath the North American Plate. The Appalachian mountains (more specifically the Chic-Choc Mountains, Notre Dame, and Long Range Mountains) are an old and eroded range of mountains, approximately 380 million years in age. It was comprised of Upper Canada (the area that became Ontario), Lower Canada (the area that became Quebec), Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick. Fossil fuels are a more recently developed resource in Canada, with oil and gas being extracted from deposits in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin since the mid 1900s. Greenland is to the northeast and to the southeast Canada shares a maritime boundary with France's overseas collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, the last vestige of New France. That settlement, called Port Royal, was located in what is now Nova Scotia. Hydroelectric power and pulp and paper industries are also important. Canada is the second largest country in the world by land area. Canada's position between the Soviet Union (now Russia) and the U.S. was strategically important during the Cold War since the route over the North Pole and Canada was the fastest route by air between the two countries and the most direct route for intercontinental ballistic missiles. In 1713, a conflict developed between the English and French and the English won control of Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and Hudson Bay. [44] Prior to its colonization and heavy urban sprawl of the 20th century, this Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests area was home to large mixed forests covering a mostly flat area of land between the Appalachian Mountains and the Canadian Shield. Boreal forest covers much of the shield, with a mix of conifers that provide valuable timber resources in areas such as the Central Canadian Shield forests ecoregion that covers much of Northern Ontario. The Canadian Shield, a hilly region of lakes and swamps, stretches across northern Canada and has some of the oldest rocks on Earth. Canada is bordered by non-contiguous US state of Alaska in the northwest and by 12 other US states in the south. In other forms, Canadian industry has a long history of extracting large coal and natural gas reserves. Canadian pole of inaccessibility is allegedly near Jackfish River, Alberta ( 59°2′N 112°49′W ) area of southwestern is... ” is known for a great richness in precious minerals it is part Canada... 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