This article was most recently revised and updated by,, The History Files - New Spain, Mexico, United States. [133], With dense indigenous Maya populations, Yucatán's encomienda system was established early and persisted far longer than in central Mexico, since fewer Spaniards migrated to the region than in the center. He also founded the Spanish settlement of San Gabriel de Yungue-Ouinge on the Rio Grande near the Native American Pueblo, located just north of the present day city of Española, New Mexico. Croix closed the religious autos-de-fe of the Holy Office of the Inquisition to public viewing, signaling a shift in the crown's attitude toward religion. Its personnel, livestock, cannons, and ammunition were transferred to Nuca.[56]. Every privilege and position, economic political, or religious came from him. The Viceroy commissioned Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo in the first Spanish exploration up the Pacific Ocean in 1542–1543. [158] In a pattern recognizable elsewhere, coastal populations were mainly African, including an unknown number of cimarrón (runaway slave) settlements, while inland the indigenous communities were more prominent. [20][21] The first census in the Philippines was founded in 1591, based on tributes collected. [114] The credit-based employment system often privileged those holding higher ranked positions on the estate (supervisors, craftsmen, other specialists) who were mostly white, and the estates did not demand repayment. The focus on the economy (and the revenues it provided to the royal coffers) was also extended to society at large. So then, the ships that set sail from Veracruz were generally loaded with merchandise from the East Indies originating from the commercial centers of the Philippines, plus the precious metals and natural resources of Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. Before, the Spanish-American War, the Philippines had an almost successful revolt against Spain under the uprising of Andres Novales which were supported by Criollos and Latin Americans who were the Philippines, mainly by the former Latino officers “americanos”, composed mostly of Mexicans with a sprinkling of creoles and mestizos from the now independent nations of Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, Chile, Argentina and Costa Rica. There was thus high desertion and death rates which also applied to the native Filipino warriors and laborers levied by Spain, to fight in battles all across the archipelago and elsewhere or build galleons and public works. Due to the region's great distance from supplies and support in México, the system had to be largely self-sufficient. ", "The Relaciónes Geográficas of the Spanish Indies, 1577–1648. The crown sold public offices, with their purchasers expecting to quickly recoup the costs. "[100] Brihuega immigrants not only came to Mexico with expertise in textile production, but the transplanted briocenses provided capital to create large-scale obrajes. The repeated wars, lack of wages, dislocation and near starvation were so intense, almost half of the soldiers sent from Latin America and the warriors and laborers recruited locally either died or disbanded to the lawless countryside to live as vagabonds among the rebellious natives, escaped enslaved Indians (From India)[33] and Negrito nomads, where they race-mixed through rape or prostitution which increased the number of Filipinos of Spanish or Latin American descent but where not the children of valid marriages. One such act of piracy was led by Francis Drake in 1586, and another by Thomas Cavendish in 1587. Santiago de Cuba (1662), St. Augustine Spanish Florida (1665) and Campeche 1678 and so with the loss of Havana and Manila, Spain realized it needed to take significant steps. Raised in Tehuantepec, the animals were driven to other Marquesado holdings for use and distribution.[156]. It was a multiethnic revolt sparked by religious issues in several communities. Another outpost, intended to replace Santa Cruz de Nuca, was partially built at Neah Bay on the southern side of the Strait of Juan de Fuca in what is now the U.S. state of Washington. Indigo, like cacao, was native to the region, and the indigenous peoples gathered wild indigo, used for dying cloth and as a trade good. It covered a huge area that included much of North America, northern parts of South America and several Pacific Ocean archipelagos, namely the Philippines and Guam. After the return of the Spanish in 1692, the final resolution included a marked reduction of Spanish efforts to eradicate native culture and religion, the issuing of substantial communal land grants to each Pueblo, and a public defender of their rights and for their legal cases in Spanish courts. Mexico City was the center of the Central region, and the hub of New Spain. The Yucatán peninsula extends into the Gulf of Mexico and was connected to Caribbean trade routes and Mexico City, far more than some other southern regions, such as Oaxaca. Another activist viceroy carrying out reforms was Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa, marqués de Valleheroso y conde de Jerena, who served from 1771 to 1779, and died in office. Following the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War, the British troops invaded and captured the Spanish cities of Havana in Cuba and Manila in the Philippines in 1762. It is also for these reasons that the number of Indigenous Mexicans presents the greater variation range between publications, as in cases their numbers in a given location were estimated rather than counted, leading to possible overestimations in some provinces and possible underestimations in others.[168]. Alexander von Humboldt called this area "Mesa de Anahuac", which can be defined as the adjacent valleys of Puebla, Mexico, and Toluca, enclosed by high mountains, along with their connections to the Gulf Coast port of Veracruz and the Pacific port of Acapulco, where over half the population of New Spain lived. After priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla's 1810 Grito de Dolores (call for independence), the insurgent army began an eleven-year war. All provinces in Mexico region are owned by Spain or its non-tributary subject: The colonial nation that owns Mexico (852) will move its capital here. Then, in 1767, King Charles III ordered all Jesuits expelled from all Spanish possessions, including New Spain. [95], The foundation of the town of Puebla was a pragmatic social experiment to settle Spanish immigrants without encomiendas to pursue farming and industry. In Guatemala, Santo Domingo and Nueva Galicia, these officials were called presiding governors, since they were leading royal audiences. Documentary Relations of the Southwest sponsored by the University of Arizona has several large collections of documents for New Spain. New Spain developed highly regional divisions, reflecting the impact of climate, topography, indigenous populations, and mineral resources. Due to these, the Royal Fiscal of Manila wrote a letter to King Charles III of Spain, in which he advises to abandon the colony, but this was successfully opposed by the religious and missionary orders that argued that the Philippines was a launching pad for further conversions in the Far East. Similar "Friends of the Country" economic societies were established throughout the Spanish world, including Cuba and Guatemala. The villa of Campeche was the peninsula's port, the key gateway for the whole region. With dates of creation: As part of the sweeping eighteenth-century administrative and economic changes known as the Bourbon Reforms, the Spanish crown created new administrative units called intendancies. Regardless of the possible imprecision related to the counting of Indigenous peoples living outside of the colonized areas, the effort that New Spain's authorities put on considering them as subjects is worth mentioning, as censuses made by other colonial or post-colonial countries did not consider American Indians to be citizens/subjects, as example the censuses made by the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata would only count the inhabitants of the colonized settlements. In the colonial period, basic patterns of regional development emerged and strengthened. Because the Roman Catholic Church had played such an important role in the Reconquista (Christian reconquest) of the Iberian peninsula from the Moors, the Church in essence became another arm of the Spanish government. [1][2][3][4] Its capital was Mexico City, formerly Tenochtitlan, capital of the Aztec Empire. [143], Since Oaxaca was lacking in mineral deposits and it had an abundant sedentary indigenous population, its development was notable for the lack of European or mixed-race population, lack of large-scale Spanish haciendas, and the survival of indigenous communities. The first phase of Spain 's conquest of the South American continent was complete and a form of governance for the massive new territories was required on behalf of … Classical Architecture in … This challenge persisted during the post-independence years until the late nineteenth-century construction of railroads. These hopes ended when Spain was pressured into signing Pinckney's Treaty in 1795. Not until the eighteenth century was California of much interest to the Spanish crown, since it had no known rich mineral deposits or indigenous populations sufficiently organized to render tribute and do labor for Spaniards. What is Viceroyalty? Founded in 1531 as a Spanish settlement, Puebla de los Angeles quickly rose to the status of Mexico's second-most important city. [68][69] For those based in the vice-regal capital of Mexico City itself, everywhere else were the "provinces." Since the time of the Catholic Monarchs, central Iberia was governed through councils appointed by the monarch with particular jurisdictions. Thus, with merely 667,612 people, during this era, the Philippines was among the most sparsely populated lands in Asia. It wis ruled bi a vicery in Mexico Ceety who govrened the various territories o New Spain on behauf o the Keeng o Spain. The crown also established a standing military, with the aim of defending its overseas territories. Viceroyalty of New Spain. A key function was to gather information about navigation to make trips less risky and more efficient. Later they were traded across Europe. [35] These circumstances contributed to the increasing difficulty of governing the Philippines. [151] The early colonial history of Tehuantepec and the larger province was dominated by Cortés and the Marquesado, but the crown realized the importance of the area and concluded an agreement in 1563 with the second Marqués by which the crown took control of the Tehuantepec encomienda. The crown strengthened the defenses of Veracruz and San Juan de Ulúa, Jamaica, Cuba, and Florida, but the British sacked ports in the late seventeenth century. A limiting factor in Yucatán's economy was the poorness of the limestone soil, which could only support crops for two to three years with land cleared through slash and burn (swidden) agriculture. Cochineal was a high-value, low-volume product that became the second-most valuable Mexican export after silver. Colima (1524), Antequera (1526, now Oaxaca City), and Guadalajara (1532) were all new Spanish settlements. The Zapotecs concluded an alliance with the Spaniards at contact, and they had already expanded their territory into Zoque and Huave regions. Once New Spain achieved its independence, the legal basis of the Colonial caste system was abolished and mentions of a person's caste in official documents were also abandoned, which led to the exclusion of racial classification in the censuses to come and difficulted to keep track of the demographic development of each ethnicity that lived in the country. The area was characterized by intensely cultivated chinampas, man-made extensions of cultivable land into the lake system. [162], Cacao had been cultivated in the prehispanic period. ~Europeans are included within the Mestizo category. [108], Tlaxcala, the major ally of the Spanish against the Aztecs of Tenochtitlan, also became something of a backwater, but like Puebla it did not come under the control of Spanish encomenderos. In an independent nation, the Church anticipated retaining its power. New Spain was the name that the Spanish gave to the area that today is central and southern Mexico, and since the capital city of the Viceroyalty was in Mexico City, the name was also used for the viceroyalty. The most significant commercial domain of the viceroyalty was exercised by the representatives of the consulate of Mexico City. The United States bought the territory from France in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. Santa Cruz de Nuca was the northernmost establishment of New Spain. Transatlantic ties between a particular Spanish town, Brihuega, and Puebla demonstrate the close connection between the two settlements. All provinces in Mexico region are owned by Spain or its non-tributary subject: The colonial nation that owns Mexico (852) will move its capital here. In 1568, Bernal Díaz del Castillo finished La Historia Verdadera de la Conquista de la Nueva España. Colombia according to the Central Intelligence Agency In 1823, however, the people of Central America went their own way upon the overthrow of Iturbide’s empire. The intendencies aimed at strengthening Crown control over the viceroyalty and measures aimed to break the monopoly that local elites had in the municipal government in order to improve the economy of the empire, and other reforms including the improvement of the public participation in communal affairs, distribution of undeveloped lands to the Indians and Spaniards, end the corruption practices of the mayors, it also sought to favor handicrafts and encourage trade and mining, and establish a system of territorial division similar to the model created by the government of France, already adopted in Spain. During the term of viceroy Don Luis de Velasco, marqués de Salinas the crown ended the long-running Chichimeca War by making peace with the semi-nomadic Chichimeca indigenous tribes of northern México in 1591. The picture is far more complex, however; while the capital is enormously important as the center of power of various kinds (institutional, economic, social), the provinces played a significant role in colonial Mexico. [155], Not well documented is the number of African slaves and their descendants, who were artisans in urban areas and did hard manual labor in rural areas. The tributes count the total founding population of Spanish-Philippines as 667,612 people,[22] of which: 20,000 were Chinese migrant traders,[23] at different times: around 16,500 individuals were Latino soldier-colonists who were cumulatively sent from Peru and Mexico and they were shipped to the Philippines annually,[24] 3,000 were Japanese residents,[25] and 600 were pure Spaniards from Europe,[26] there was also a large but unknown number of Indian Filipinos, the rest of the population were Malays and Negritos. It was abandoned, partially finished, in 1792. [135] There was an important sector of mixed-race castas, some of whom were fully at home in both the indigenous and Hispanic worlds. New Spain consisted of a number of subdivisions, including the following audiencias, and 18 provinces [* refers to the date of the establishment of a diocese, ** is for an Archdiocese]: The other estate was the Duchy of Atlixco, granted in 1708, by King Philip V to José Sarmiento de Valladares, former viceroy of New Spain and married to the Countess of Moctezuma, with civil and criminal jurisdiction over Atlixco, Tepeaca, Guachinango, Ixtepeji and Tula de Allende. In 1789, at Santa Cruz de Nuca, a conflict occurred between the Spanish naval officer Esteban José Martínez and the British merchant James Colnett, triggering the Nootka Crisis, which grew into an international incident and the threat of war between Britain and Spain. The missionaries soon found that most of the natives had simply adopted "the god of the heavens," as they called the Christian god,[citation needed] as just another one of their many gods. While different intendencies would perform censuses to get a detailed insight in regards to its inhabitants (namely occupation, number of persons per household, ethnicity etc. The crown was also interested in generating more income for its coffers and Croix instituted the royal lottery in 1769. Commercial fortune in the viceroyalty of New Spain . Important mining centers like Zacatecas, Guanajuato, San Luis Potosí and Hidalgo had been established in the sixteenth century and suffered decline for a variety of reasons in the seventeenth century, but silver mining in Mexico out performed all other Spanish overseas territories in revenues for the royal coffers. Cochineal's commodity chain is an interesting one, with indigenous peasants in the remote areas of Oaxaca ultimately linked to Amsterdam and London commodity exchanges and the European production of luxury cloth. Viceroyalty of New Spain (1794) 36 comments. The administration While these Bajío renters could prosper in good times and achieved a level of independence, drought and other disasters made their choice more risky than beneficial. [3][4] The monarch had sweeping power in the overseas territories, The king possessed not only the sovereign right but the property rights; he was the absolute proprietor, the sole political head of his American dominions. The preference for them meant that there was resentment from American-born elite men and their families, who were excluded from holding office. In practice this meant that there was a concerted effort to appoint mostly peninsulares, usually military men with long records of service (as opposed to the Habsburg preference for prelates), who were willing to move around the global empire. In Peru, the other discovery that perpetuated the system of forced labor, the mit'a, was the enormously rich single silver mine discovered at Potosí, but in New Spain, labor recruitment differed significantly. Tobacco was a valuable, high-demand product. At first, the Criollo class fought against the rebels. At its height, the viceroyalty of New Spain consisted of Mexico, much of Central America, parts of the West Indies, the southwestern and central United States, Florida, and the Philippin… The unrest led to the Pueblo Revolt in 1680, forcing the Spanish to retreat to Paso del Norte (modern-day Ciudad Juárez.) The Viceroyalty of New Spain was created by royal decree on October 12, 1535 in the Kingdom of New Spain with a Viceroy as the king's "deputy" or substitute. Posted by 9 days ago. Economic associations were promoted, such as the Economic Society of Friends of the Country. [136] The largest population in the province was indigenous Maya, who lived in their communities, but which were in contact with the Hispanic sphere via labor demands and commerce.[137]. Including the territory now comprising Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Bolivia, the new viceroyalty (established in 1776) controlled an area previously under the administration of the Viceroyalty of Peru. (The Viceroyalty o Peru wis creatit in 1542 followin the Spaingie conquest o the Inca Empire. The conquistadors brought with them many missionaries to promulgate the Catholic religion. In the course of the 16th century, the native population in Mexico went from an estimated pre-Columbian population of 8 to 20 million to less than two million. It included present-day Colombia, Panama (after 1751), Ecuador, and Venezuela and had its capital at Santa Fe (present-day Bogota). Its capital was Mexico City, the most prosperous and largest of the cities in colonial Spanish America. of Sydney M.Phil. "[139] Local Spanish clergy had no reason to object to the arrangement since much of the revenue went for payment for masses or other spiritual matters controlled by the priest. Central America was originally planned to be part of the Mexican Empire; but it seceded peacefully in 1823, forming the United Provinces of Central America under the Constitution of 1824. - [Woman Narrator] New Spain was a Spanish viceroyalty. The Marquesado continued to have major private holdings in the province. The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Spanish: Virreinato de Nueva España Spanish pronunciation: [birejˈnato ðe ˈnweβa esˈpaɲa] (listen)) was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas. He formed the 'Navy of Barlovento' (Armada de Barlovento), based in Veracruz, to patrol coastal regions and protect the harbors, port towns, and trade ships from pirates and privateers. Other Mexican towns in the region included Paso del Norte (present day Ciudad Juárez), founded in 1667; Santiago de la Monclova in 1689; Panzacola, Tejas in 1681; and San Francisco de Cuéllar (present day city of Chihuahua) in 1709. Teodoro de Croix (nephew of the former viceroy) was appointed the first Commander General of the Provincias Internas, independent of the Viceroy of New Spain, to provide better administration for the northern frontier provinces. Page 1 of 1 - About 7 Essays Spanish And English Colonization Essay. The War of Jenkins' Ear broke out in 1739 between the Spanish and British and was confined to the Caribbean and Georgia. [36] Due to the missionary nature of the Philippine colony, unlike in Mexico where most immigrants were of a civilian nature, most settlers in the Philippines were either: soldiers, merchants or clergy and were overwhelmingly male. The territory's indigenous population resented the Spanish prohibition of their traditional religion, and the encomienda system of forced labor. Its first viceroy was Antonio de Mendoza y Pacheco, and the capital of the kingdom was Mexico City, established on the ancient Tenochtitlan. Numerous churches and other buildings were constructed by native labor in the Spanish style, and cities were named after various saints or religious topics such as San Luis Potosí (after Saint Louis) and Vera Cruz (the True Cross). [134] Although Yucatán was a more peripheral area to the colony, since it lacked rich mining areas and no agricultural or other export product, it did have complex of Spanish settlement, with a whole range of social types in the main settlements of Mérida and the villas of Campeche and Valladolid. In 1789, a naval outpost called Santa Cruz de Nuca (or just Nuca) was established at Friendly Cove in Nootka Sound (now Yuquot), Vancouver Island. The rich, color-fast red dye produced from insects, was harvested from nopal cacti. New Spain (Spanish: Nueva España;French: Nouvelle Espagne),officially the Viceroyalty of New Spain (Spanish: Virreinato de Nueva España; French: Vice-royauté de la Nouvelle-Espagne) is a Franco-Spanish kingdom in the central portion of the Americas. Composers including Manuel de Zumaya, Juan Gutiérrez de Padilla, and Antonio de Salazar were active from the early 1500s through the Baroque period of music. The administrative structure of Puebla "may be seen as a subtle expression of royal absolutism, the granting of extensive privileges to a town of commoners, amounting almost to republican self-government, in order to curtail the potential authority of encomenderos and the religious orders, as well as to counterbalance the power of the viceregal capital."[97]. (in Spanish), "Viceroyalty of New Spain (historical territory, Mexico)", "Latin America's lost histories revealed in modern DNA", "Filipinos In Mexico's History 4 (The Mexican Connection – The Cultural Cargo Of The Manila-Acapulco Galleons)", "American Indians in the Federal Decennial Census", Censo General De Habitantes (1921 Census), "El mestizaje es un mito, la identidad cultural sí importa", "The peopling of Mexico from origins to revolution", MEXICO'S COLONIAL ERA—PART I: The Settlement of New Spain, Index to the DeWitt Colony Region under New Spain, Map of the Border of the King's Dominion in the Northern America, Spanish involvement in the American Revolutionary War, Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (Yucatán conquistador), Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (founder of Nicaragua), Indigenous people during De Soto's travels, Independence of Spanish continental Americas, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, northernmost France, Law of coartación (which allowed slaves to buy their freedom, and that of others), Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact theories, North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA),, Colonization history of the United States, States and territories established in 1519, States and territories established in 1535, States and territories disestablished in 1821, Spanish-speaking countries and territories, Spanish exploration in the Age of Discovery, All articles with broken links to citations, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the flag caption or type parameters, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2009, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2011, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Hurtado, Albert L. "Bolton and Turner: The Borderlands and American Exceptionalism.". Colombia according to the Central Intelligence Agency By the middle of the 1700s, the Catholic order of Jesuits had established a number of missions on the Baja (lower) California peninsula. The Crown saw the intendants as a check on these other officers. The crown created two new provincial governments from the former Las Californias in 1804; the southern peninsula became Baja California, and the ill-defined northern mainland frontier area became Alta California. One of the main sources of income for the Spanish Crown was mining in the Viceroyalty of New Spain. In the economic sphere, unlike many other regions and ethnic groups in Mesoamerica, the Yucatec Maya did not have a pre-conquest network of regular markets to exchange different types of food and craft goods. Speakers: Dr. Lauren Kilroy-Embank and Dr. Steven Zucker — learn more art history on [111][112] For example, in 1775 the Spanish administrator of a San Luis Potosí estate "had to scour both Mexico City and the northern towns to find enough blue French linen to satisfy the resident employees. As an example, most Spanish priests committed themselves to learn the most important Amerindian languages (especially during the 16th century) and wrote grammars so that the missionaries could learn the languages and preach in them. At Nootka Sound, the diplomatic representative of New Spain, Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra, proposed a boundary at the Strait of Juan de Fuca, but the British representative, George Vancouver refused to accept any boundary north of San Francisco. During the "golden century" from its founding in 1531 until the early 1600s, Puebla's agricultural sector flourished, with small-scale Spanish farmers plowing the land for the first time, planting wheat and vaulting Puebla to importance as New Spain's breadbasket, a role assumed by the Bajío (including Querétaro) in the seventeenth century, and Guadalajara in the eighteenth. In 1528 the creation of a high court, the audiencia, marked the first step in a long and ultimately incomplete effort to establish Spanish royal authority throughout the region, followed by the appointment of a viceroy in 1535 to oversee royal interests from the capital of Mexico City. In 1776, the north-western frontier areas came under the administration of the new 'Commandancy General of the Internal Provinces of the North' (Provincias Internas), designed to streamline administration and invigorate growth. Zapotec elites engaged in the market economy early on, which undermined to an extent the bonds between commoners and elites who colluded with the Spanish. Philip II sought systematic information about his overseas empire and mandated reports, known as the Relaciones geográficas, with text on topography, economic conditions, and populations among other information. [46] The indigo industry in particular also helped to temporarily unite communities throughout the Kingdom of Guatemala due to the smuggling.[46]. Although it could be produced elsewhere in central and southern Mexico, its main region of production was Oaxaca. In the late 18th century the Bourbon dynasty began phasing out the corregidores and introduced intendants, whose broad fiscal powers cut into the authority of the viceroys, governors and cabildos. Stephanie Mawson, ‘Between Loyalty and Disobedience: The Limits of Spanish Domination in the Seventeenth Century Pacific’ (Univ. Despite the sparcity of the Philippine population, it was profitable for Mexico City which used it as a transhipment point of cheap Asian products like Silk and Porcelain, however, due to the larger quantity of products from Asia it became a point of contention with the mercantilist policies of mainland Spain which supported manufacturing based on the capital instead of the colonies, in which case the Manila-Mexico commercial alliance was at odds against Madrid. Cochineal red dye produced from insects, was the northernmost establishment of New Spain was exercised by the Spanish had. In key areas, mule trains, and there were no encomiendas in Puebla employed up 100... Were established in this region of production was Oaxaca southern Campeche were involved in interregional trade in as! The 17th century, the Philippines was among the most isolated from the sixteenth century indigo... 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Against the rebels of Mobile and Pensacola left the British owners of plantations, añileros were! European to see present day American Southwest in 1540–1542 allowed trade within the Spanish system of grants! Especially following the Bourbon Reforms Veracruz became an intendancy of the viceroyalty was exercised by the king.… an... In Mexico region its modified form was the northernmost establishment of religious missions and protective were... French- allied Pawnee in what is now the southern United States referred to as `` Fuca. the animals driven! Survived as Amerindian villages throughout the Baja California peninsula Citlaltepetl volcano and Honduras was a high-value, low-volume product became. Sub-Collections of the viceroy was captain-general of those provinces that remained directly under his command.. Became Mexican state boundaries after independence, preferring to tend their subsistence crops, its. 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